ASEAN countries take advantage of low cost to actively develop and expand manufacturing
ASEAN countries are geographically adjacent to China and have similar development stages. They are important partners and compete with China in some areas. In recent years, ASEAN countries have not only made full use of their low-cost advantages and actively undertaken international industrial transfers, but also adopted a series of measures to enhance the competitiveness of advanced manufacturing industries, demonstrating their ambitions to accelerate the process of industrialization. Sorting out and analyzing the new developments of the manufacturing industry in ASEAN countries is of great significance to China's promotion of high-quality development of manufacturing, as well as forward-looking layout, promotion of open cooperation, and expansion of international markets in the changing international environment.
From the perspective of strategic deployment, the status and role of the manufacturing industry will be further strengthened through programmatic documents, and the systematic support policies and promotion mechanisms that promote the development of the manufacturing industry will be continuously improved.
First, several strategic plans have been issued one after another. ASEAN issued the "ASEAN Declaration on Transition to Industry 4.0" this year, proposing to explore the establishment of new mechanisms and open platforms to promote joint research, investment, development and application of industry 4.0-related technologies among enterprises, enterprises and research institutes. Thailand launched the "Thailand 4.0 Strategy" and adopted measures such as cultivating emerging industries, promoting the intelligent transformation of manufacturing, and creating a high-value-added industrial chain, aiming to achieve the largest economic transformation in Thailand's history in 20 years. Indonesia has launched the "Made in Indonesia 4.0" plan and roadmap, proposing five priority development industries including food and beverages, automobiles, textiles, electronics, and chemicals, as well as ten priority tasks such as accelerating digital infrastructure construction and improving manufacturing policies and regulations. Enter the world's top ten economies in 2030.
The second is to formulate systematic support policies. For example, Malaysia issued the "National Industry 4.0 Policy", which provides tax relief and other preferential policies for recognized "Industry 4.0" companies (such as corporate income tax relief for up to 10 years, up to 100%) .
The third is to improve the communication and coordination mechanism. In September 2019, Cambodia established a digital economy working group led by the Ministry of Economy and Finance, and successively introduced measures to expand digital infrastructure investment and strengthen digital talent training. At the same time, Cambodia has also established a long-term cooperation mechanism with developed countries, such as the country’s World Bridge Special Economic Zone and Bavaria, the United Nations Development Program and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, to develop the first German-style "Industry 4.0" industrial zone. , Aims to create an industrial cluster composed of large enterprises.
From the perspective of the development path, the promotion of intelligent upgrading is the main direction of shaping the competitiveness of the future manufacturing industry, and the software and hardware environment is created for the digital exploration and practice of enterprises. The Singapore Economic Development Board and the German testing and specification certification company jointly launched the Singapore Industrial Intelligent Readiness Index to assess the level of intelligent technology application of manufacturing enterprises and formulate a systematic intelligent transformation plan for them. Indonesia has vigorously promoted the construction of smart factories, widely used industrial Internet of Things technologies such as smart sensors, early warning management, and on-site benchmark testing to help employees conduct operations management, equipment maintenance and energy use in a visual manner. The annual downtime has been reduced by 44%. At the same time, through the integration of IT and OT (Operational Technology), it provides an end-to-end demand view to coordinate upstream and downstream partners, and the on-time delivery rate is increased by 40%.
From the perspective of element support, more attention is paid to the cultivation of manufacturing talents to establish elite teams, and the training and quality improvement of talents is a key measure to promote the upgrading of manufacturing.
One is to strengthen the training of talents in key areas. Malaysia proposed to further increase the importance of cognitive skills such as mathematics and science. The country requires schools to review and reset courses, innovate teaching methods, and improve education models, such as strengthening the training of talents through apprenticeships, real-life simulations, and specialized employer training programs.
The second is to focus on updating the skills of in-service personnel. ASEAN has formulated the "Guidelines for the Development of Technical Labor/Professional Services in the Fourth Industrial Revolution" and established ASEAN online universities to enrich higher education models. The ASEAN SME Online Academy was established to provide SMEs with business information and training resources through a one-stop, open portal. The Philippines issued the "National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan (2018-2022)" to guide stakeholders in vocational and technical education and training. At the same time, it also carried out skills demand forecasts and labor skills related to digital transformation and green manufacturing. The survey provides support for the development of higher-level qualification certificates.
From the perspective of cultivation direction, more attention is paid to the systematic support of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the promotion of public service supply and increasing financial support are important means. The "Mini-Enterprise Digitalization Policy Guidelines" issued by ASEAN states that the government should adopt methods such as simplifying approval procedures, reducing management costs, and improving information collection to reduce the burden on micro-enterprises and create a better development environment for micro-enterprises.
Singapore has launched a series of policy measures such as transformation plans, expansion plans, innovation plans and employee training plans around enterprises to help small, medium and micro manufacturing enterprises expand their business scale and apply new technologies.
Thailand launched "SME 4.0": In terms of intelligent upgrading, it helps SMEs to carry out digital transformation of finance, market, internal management and cost control; in terms of opening up the international market, leading domestic enterprises to participate in various international exhibitions to promote enterprises Indirect docking and cooperation; in terms of talent training, focusing on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises for the international market, a series of trainings on product packaging, sample design, and international trade will be carried out.
Drawing lessons from ASEAN’s practices and experience in accelerating the development of manufacturing, combined with China’s specific reality, the following suggestions are made:
Strengthen the follow-up research on the manufacturing development policies and measures of ASEAN countries.
The first is to strengthen the timely translation and interpretation of the strategic planning, policy measures and the results of authoritative research institutions in the manufacturing sector of ASEAN countries, and systematically study and analyze the latest developments in the manufacturing industry in ASEAN countries and assess the relevant impact.
The second is to strengthen the monitoring and analysis of industrial operations in ASEAN countries, accurately assess the implementation effects of relevant policies and measures in ASEAN countries, and provide early warnings for key indicators, which will help China to respond in advance.
Strengthen multi-level exchanges and cooperation with ASEAN countries in the manufacturing sector.
At the government level, explore the establishment of cooperation mechanisms at the level of vice ministerial meetings, bureau-level working groups, research institutions, etc. between China and ASEAN and other countries, and provide a platform for exchanges between the two sides on topics of common concern such as the development of advanced manufacturing and digital transformation.
At the enterprise level, establish a regular meeting and negotiation mechanism for enterprises with high-end forums, summit dialogues, etc., and regularly hold high-end conferences, forums and exhibitions with themes of new generation information technology, artificial intelligence, industrial Internet, etc., for cooperation between enterprises Create opportunities. At the level of research institutions, we will unite with ASEAN universities and institutes to set up production-university-research integration projects around key industrial areas, share innovative results, promote the transformation of results, and jointly cultivate international and compound high-end talents.
Learn from ASEAN's experience to improve China's manufacturing development support policies.
The first is to strengthen cross-departmental coordination of policies. Eliminate the division and overlap of policy documents, and maintain policy consistency among multiple departments.
The second is to pay more attention to the construction of the talent team. Expand the autonomy of colleges and universities to dynamically adjust the subject setting, and optimize the subject setting around the demand for talents in key fields. Pay attention to the training and selection of talents in emerging fields and compound talents.
The third is to build an environment conducive to the development of SMEs. Establish a special fund for “hidden champions” to provide long-term low-interest capital support to small and medium-sized enterprises. Improve the public service platform for small and medium-sized enterprises and provide R&D environment and experimental verification services. Establish a long-term docking mechanism between SMEs and colleges and universities to meet their urgent needs for key and common technologies.