1. Review of foreign policy strategies
With Klaus Schwab, chairman of the World Economic Forum, officially proclaiming the arrival of the fourth industrial revolution in 2016, global manufacturing will officially launch large-scale technological innovation. In addition to emphasizing the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT), the fourth industrial revolution, which focuses on "smart manufacturing," accelerates the practice of human-machine collaboration fields and production models. In the face of this wave of digital shocks, countries have proposed corresponding strategies to create a smart production environment by strengthening their own innovation ecosystem to enhance national competitiveness.
Recalling the development strategies of Industry 4.0 in various countries, their promotion goals are focused on strengthening the main position of enterprise technological innovation, introducing emerging technologies (such as precision robots, cutting-edge intelligent control, etc.) to improve resource productivity and utilization efficiency, and establishing innovative products and business models (such as Internet-based) to create more value opportunities, increase national investment in scientific research and strengthen R&D in key scientific research fields/projects. The strategic connotations adopted by various countries include increasing the R&D budget of technological innovation, supporting investment in technological innovation talents, encouraging open innovation activities, activating local development through technological innovation, deepening the link with overseas growth markets, and expanding R&D investment and implementing systems. Reform, etc.
Taking Germany and the United States as examples, a laissez-faire attitude towards the regulation of the innovation industry is adopted, and abundant sources of funds are the key reasons for the formation of the innovation ecosystem. The ecosystem will be dominated by industry and academia, and its government will only play ancillary roles such as strengthening regulations, creating an innovative and friendly environment, and maintaining market order. In order to meet the needs of smart manufacturing, the strategy emphasizes the establishment of industry-university links and the construction of talent training networks. The promotion strategies include the introduction of new ventures into university research parks, enterprise-funded research projects to cultivate industry professionals, and the same teaching methods through industry teachers in order to promote young people to encourage innovation and other measures.
In the field of smart manufacturing, Germany ’s priority technology areas will focus on the three technologies of cloud computing, smart grid, and big data analysis. Optimal allocation and, given the resource productivity, maximize the maximum output possible. Furthermore, in order to cope with the shortage of energy resources in the future, the priority technology areas to be promoted will be locked in Advanced Materials Manufacturing (AMM), Visualization, Informatics and Digital Manufacturing (VIDM) and Advanced Sensing, Control, and Platforms for Manufacturing (ASCPM) The introduction of ASCPM and AMM in the manufacturing process will help seamless integration of information and machinery, thereby improving production efficiency and reducing energy consumption.
In contrast to Japan and South Korea, the government plays an important role in the innovation ecosystem. The government clearly defines the direction of innovation development and conducts integrated planning of scientific research institutions, and then large private enterprises lead the content of innovation activities. Eighty percent of the innovative funding sources are funded by large enterprises, and under the guidance of large enterprises, small and medium-sized enterprises are driven into the Industry 4.0 stage. Regarding the demand for scientific and technological talents, it is through various incentive policies to attract the entry of global scientific and technological talents to make up for the gap in the shortage of technological talents in the innovation industry.
In the field of smart manufacturing, due to the early investment in Japan, the three stages of flexible production transformation from the 1980s to Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) and factory automation are designed to demonstrate the ambition of technological development and realize the "super-smart society" (Society 5.0) ”, the ideal goal of Japan is to develop in the three major technical fields of artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, and sensors in order to create an innovative network and physical space basic technologies, and then develop cutting-edge intelligent control and diversification. The data processing mode creates higher industry added value. In contrast to South Korea, the technical focus will combine existing manufacturing advantages and ICT technology to strengthen the application of big data and production process monitoring systems to improve production efficiency and reduce overall production costs.
To sum up the above, whether it is Japan and South Korea led by the government, or Germany and the United States where enterprises are the mainstay of innovation, it has become an important trend to create a friendly manufacturing environment for smart manufacturing and human-machine collaboration. Industrial powers are actively proposing relevant response strategies, so how should Taiwan deploy and develop which key technologies in this wave, in order to realize the new value generated by the innovative ecosystem under the human-machine. Collaboration and create new application areas?
Second, the domestic situation analysis
Looking at Taiwan's manufacturing industry, two major dilemmas are facing. First, due to the late start of the development of Industry 4.0, the key technology will fall behind advanced countries, so that the domestic technology level cannot be in line with international trends, and SMEs are facing transformation. Dilemma. Second, with Demand Driven's Industry 4.0 production model, Taiwan's manufacturing industry is forced to change from the automated production of the entire factory to a small number of customized proction modes. However, under the high division of labor in the global manufacturing industry, Taiwan will face a high-end market Gradually losing its advantage, orders in the low-end market must compete with developing countries.
Under the circumstances of limited resources, how Taiwan can break through the difficulties and find the key technology areas to be given priority has become an important issue worth discussing. Based on this, based on the EU KETs key technical report (European Commission, 2014) and work plan (European Commission, 2013) as the basis, we reconstructed a list of 46 core key technologies for smart manufacturing, selected through in-depth interviews with experts, selected Of the interviewees are mainly industry-university-research experts specializing in smart manufacturing and other related fields. The background of the expert group includes automation systems, content information, simulation technology, industrial engineering, and other fields. The results of the study found that the top four technology areas that experts suggested that Taiwan should prioritize are: information and communication, advanced manufacturing systems, micron and nanoelectronics, and advanced materials. Among them, seven core key technology areas are counted, and it is found that in the past five years of patent activities, the patents in the four major areas of micro-nanometer electronic technology, optics, telecommunications, and advanced manufacturing technology have the highest relative influence, indicating that Taiwan has its development foundation with advantages.
Going further, explore the top 10 core key technologies that should be developed with priority in the technical field. Expert recommendations are as follows: (1) micro-nanometer electronic production technology; (2) electronic and optical functional materials; (3) artificial intelligence; (4) Hardware architecture; (5) High-performance manufacturing; (6) Smart and versatile materials, components and structures; (7) Laser, optics, optical fiber; (8) Robotics and automation systems; (9) Advanced (Health) Chemical process; (10) Future Network. Among them, (1) micro-nanometer electronic production technology, (3) artificial intelligence, (4) hardware architecture, (5) high-performance manufacturing and (10) future network, these 5 core technologies for industrial innovation and application needs With the highest degree of entry and a higher barrier to entry, the government is urgently required to assist the industry, academia, and research in highly cross-disciplinary system integration.
Finally, experts agreed that the application areas where Taiwan has relatively developed advantages include: (1) user-friendly human-machine interface; (2) low-consumption high-computing components; (3) high-efficiency power control and conversion electronic components; ( 4) Convergence and intelligence of consumer electronic products; (6) High-resolution integrated 3D visualization; (7) Integration of non-traditional process technologies; (8) Tools and concepts for manufacturing new or advanced materials; ( 9) Advanced embedded positioning and navigation; and (10) Integration of power transportation system and infrastructure. Relevant inventory results can be used by the industry to explore the gaps in technology applications and to innovate innovative R & D activities; at the same time, it can be used as a key input for government technology development.
3. Conclusions and recommendations
In view of the global smart manufacturing output value will exceed USD $ 320 billion by 2020, the manufacturers investing in smart manufacturing throughout the entire business ecosystem are expected to drive the annual compound growth rate (CAGR) of the smart manufacturing output value from 2017 to 2020 to 12.5% It is recommended that the Chinese government continue to promote the integration of domestic hard and soft industries. Compared with European and American countries, Taiwan started late in Industry 4.0. In order to accelerate the realization of the vision of smart manufacturing, this article makes the following suggestions:
(1) Using "cross-domain virtual and real integration" and "flexible decision-making" as the vision of smart manufacturing, construct a "soft and hard integration" innovation ecosystem to facilitate the opportunity for innovative applications
Experts clearly suggested that Taiwan needs an industrial policy and goals with forward-looking vision and thinking, and the government links resources from all walks of life to build a perfect industrial ecosystem to accelerate industrial innovation and optimize industrial structure. Furthermore, improve the overall investment environment and simplify laws and regulations, and use national resources to induce investment; at the same time, link the energy of the international innovation cluster to drive domestic technological innovation, let the market mechanism and industrial ecology eliminate the weak and stay strong, and allow new enterprises Be able to grow and thrive.
(2) Considering the existing resources and development advantages of Taiwan's industry, a mixed strategy between Industry 3.0 and Industry 4.0 is adopted to continuously improve basic industrial technology and create a smart manufacturing model that conforms to Taiwan's characteristics
In the past, key technologies were often in the hands of large international manufacturers. Taiwanese manufacturers not only had to import hardware equipment from abroad but also had to pay for subsequent software update services, which was burdened with huge licensing costs. Therefore, the development of a cross-disciplinary integrated manufacturing platform will help to achieve an advantageous position in the industrial value chain and improve technological autonomy. Considering the high rate of global energy consumption and limited national resources, the promotion of high-efficiency technology, reused materials, and maximizing operational efficiency will be the focus of future technological development.
(3) Improving the core capabilities of smart manufacturing industry, starting with cultivating talents, recruiting talents and retaining talents
The emergence of emerging technologies will not only impact the work pattern and the emergence of new leaders but will also exacerbate the gap between the industry-university gap and the academic gap. In order to meet the needs of technological development and integration, cultivating cross-domain digital talents will become an important cornerstone. In the education department, although various ministries will actively promote digital talent training programs, in the cultivation system, they still focus on the development of professional skills of high-level talents and lack of popular education. It is recommended that local governments can cooperate with real estate academic research institutions to provide Free digital learning courses for local people to enhance the public ’s interest in learning, or to integrate resources for production, education, and research, and provide multiple channels for lifelong learning. For example, legal entities can assist industries to establish cooperative alliances and promote joint internships and training courses; Industrial demand-oriented short-term professional courses stimulate cross-disciplinary learning and communication.
In the talent recruitment section, in addition to using the talent recruitment method to attract international high-level talents at this stage, experts suggest that the government can continue to invite international elites to come to Taiwan to communicate with the salary levels of other countries and pass on experience, knowledge, and skills to the seeds Teachers, from the Bank of China to sell China's industrial advantages and advanced equipment, and then create a benign interactive innovation ecosystem. Finally, in terms of staying talents, experts suggested that in addition to raising the salary level, the regulations for foreign companies to invest domestically should be relaxed, not only to introduce international innovative technologies and knowledge but also to establish a close cross-border cooperative relationship and strengthen China ’s technological autonomy. To increase the willingness of professionals to stay.
(4) Adapt the existing legal structure and environment, and respond to new forms of legal relationships and issues arising from emerging industries or manufacturing processes from the two directions of "regulation" and "promotion"
Such as personal asset management, spectrum management, etc., and then reduce the risk of industrial development. In the individual asset management section, refer to the European Union ’s adoption of the “General Data Protection Regulation, GDPR” in 2017. For example, if an enterprise should establish a post of data protection chief, the data must be clearly approved by the parties before data access, and the scope of individual asset protection is extended to the Internet. IP address and web browsing records, etc.; or a better security structure and personal data review center may be built, which can not only strengthen privacy and personal security but also expand the scope of data value-added applications.
Secondly, regarding the legal practices of liability attribution and damage compensation, experts suggest that we can start from the evaluation criteria to ensure the safety of smart technology applications, and then discuss the various roles (such as R&D personnel, users, competent authorities, etc.) in design, Operation, management, and other responsibilities, and establish a unified power handling unit to coordinate cross-ministerial issues.
Based on the above, the government should respect the market mechanism and build a good open legal environment. Through counseling, education, and training, the introduction of international technical talents and tax discount mechanisms, companies should lead the company to design a smart manufacturing model suitable for them. Fair competition in a free market.
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